It can be many things. Non-touchless car wash, waxing/buffing with a normal orbital and not changing pads/wrongspeed/wrongcompound, can even be something as simple as you handwashing the car and while doing so use your sponge on the botom of the fenders where dirt collects than continuing to wash the rest of the car with it.
These swirls are from the previous owner. He half ass waxed it and screwed it up. I unfortunately had to get it fixed.
and I would NEVER be seen anywhere near a non-touchless car wash haha