No, either device could be damaged in principle, in simple terms a big battery can blow a small charger as it draws too much current and vice versa, but things are not simple these days!
With a modern device and port you are pretty safe.
The important bit is the AGE of the equipment, 'charging ports' were only invented in 2008, and there's a time lag for implementing them, so our new CCC units were released in mid 2008 (designed on 07?), so who knows what ports are in it??
Try a USB stick in it after a few days to see if it has 'recovered'