It is probably a 2.5" SATA disk these days.
If you can get physical access to it, I would get a second similar drive and make using Linux a byte for byte copy. You then have all the time to try to understand the partition and filesystem layout (assuming it is not something custom) without messing with the original disk.
Note that I said Linux and not Windows for a reason. First of all Linux understand many more partition schemes and filesystems then windows does, second windows has the nasty habit of writing to the disk even when you think your just looking at it.