The Framers of the Constitution were concerned about the "tyranny of the majority", also sometimes called "mob rule." If you can get just 50 plus 1, your side gets to decide how to treat the other 49.
Here are a few examples of how they implemented the structure of government to protect minority interests:
1.) All states have 2 Senators, regardless of population. That way a small state like Wyoming has as much influence in the Senate as a very large state like California.
2.) The President is not elected by popular vote, but by the Electoral College. The EC apportions votes based on how many Representatives and Senators a state has. It is true that larger states have more EC votes, but look at the last few elections. Smaller "swing states" like Minnesota and Pennsylvania were the battlegrounds, not states like NY, CA or TX...
The EC even came under fire from the 2000 election where Gore had more popular votes than Bush, but Bush won in enough states to give him the EC win. This of course pisses people off, because they believe we live in a "50+1" democracy (we don't), although the EC is setup as a "50+1". But if all someone had to do to win the Presidency was win the popular vote, I doubt you'd see any campaigning in smaller states. This has the effect of concentrating power and influence. I think California already has too much power and influence over politics because of their population, I sure don't want them to have more.
Anyway, those are just a few of the many protections in the Constitution. The rest are big and pretty easy to spot (ahem, Bill of Rights anyone?) I don't think you should have much problem finding ample subject matter for your paper....
2010 E70 X5 35d
Alpine White on Black with Dark Bamboo trim
ZAP | ZCW | ZPP | ZPS | ZRC | ZTP | 322 | 328 | 330 | 386 | 4AZ | 4UB | 655 | 6FL | 6NF
2008 Ducati 1098S Red naturally....